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The P inspired awe. The Zero earned loyalty. The Spitfire gained devotion. The Me commanded respect. The man behind the machine, Wilhelm Emil Messerschmitt , was born on June 26, , in Frankfurt-am-Main, the son of a wine merchant. By , he was co-manager of the Bayerische Flugzeugwerke Allgemeine Gesellschaft BFW , which underwent bankruptcy proceedings on June 1 of that year.
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In mid, Messerschmitt began work on a four-passenger light transport of cantilever low-wing monoplane design, with retractable landing gear. Completed in the spring of , the BFW M. Although the Bf did not win any of the events, its performance was impressive, and it earned a production contract. Even before the Bf had made its first flight, Messerschmitt learned that the RLM Reichsluftfahrtministerium, or air ministry was about to issue a specification for a fighter, to be powered by the Junkers Jumo engine and to be capable of at least mph.
Officially, most German airplane manufacturers were invited to submit designs; unofficially, only the established firms like Arado, Heinkel, Fieseler and Focke Wulf could expect serious consideration. While work proceeded on the Versuchs prototype Bf fighter, Germany officially established the Luftwaffe on March 1, , and Adolf Hitler publicly renounced the Treaty of Versailles restrictions on German rearmament on March The first prototype, the BfV-1, flew for the first time on May 29, , a mere three months from the official establishment of the Luftwaffe.
National Archives. The BfV-2, completed in October, introduced the hp Jumo A as well as a strengthened undercarriage, and the BfV-3, delivered in June , was the first to be armed with an engine-mounted 7. In spite of its high wing loading, which limited its maneuverability at low speeds, the Bf yielded such outstanding performance that the RLM quickly eliminated the Arado Ar and Focke Wulf Fw from consideration. That left only the Heinkel He as a possible competitor. Spain would provide a combat environment in which to refine the Bf as a fighter—and the tactics to use it to best effect.
The first operational unit in Spain, 2. Staffel of Jagdgruppe 88 2. Operations were initially plagued by accidents, but its pilots soon overcame the challenge of taking off and landing on a narrow-track undercarriage in an airplane that tended to drop its left wing, by applying plenty of compensation with the rudder. The BfB and its principal rival, the I, were at first closely matched. The BfB was faster in level flight and in a dive, while the I had a superior climb rate and maneuverability. The Spanish Civil War provided a nearly ideal testing ground for the new fighter, and its pilots.
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That fundamental concept would become the basis for numerous variations. When he died in a transport plane crash on November 22, , his score stood at While the Bf was being blooded over Spain, its capabilities were also being demonstrated to the world in Switzerland. Ernst Heinkel, whose He was rapidly losing ground to the Messerschmitt, responded with a sleeker design, the He Not to be outdone, Messerschmitt undertook a major redesign of his basic fighter, producing the MeV-1, with a special DB ARJ engine that could boost its power from 1, hp to 2, hp for about one minute, bringing the maximum speed up to As a result, that official piston-engine speed record would stand for the next 30 years.
Guided by lessons learned in Spain, Messerschmitt produced a rapid succession of improved fighters. Soon after the MeE-1 entered production, Messerschmitt designed a naval version with an extended wingspan, a strengthened airframe and an arrestor hook. The project was dropped when construction on Graf Zeppelin was halted in , but some production MeT-1s and a fighter-bomber variant, the MeT-2, saw operational use with land-based units up to the summer of Three MeE-3s were also shipped to Japan for evaluation early in Two of the export orders were to cause some embarrassment later.
When the Germans invaded Yugoslavia in April , the Luftwaffe again had to deal with opposition from its own MeEs, fiercely flown by Yugoslav pilots. The German Experten aces with 10 or more victories finally met their match over Dunkirk in May , when they first encountered the Supermarine Spitfire.
The rivalry between those two classic fighters would continue throughout the Battle of Britain. After 20 to 30 minutes over the average British target, a Messerschmitt pilot would have to break off his engagement or he would run out of fuel before he could return to base across the English Channel. Books 5. Projects 5. Refine by Reset all. Sort filters: Relevance A-Z. Scale Reset Group Reset Aircraft Category Reset Propeller Manufacturer country Reset DR Topic Reset Messerschmitt Bf Brand Reset Cutting Edge Modelworks 7.
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Dimensions required to generate a grid, especially cylinder head and valves lift were obtained by direct measurement of elements of the modified engine. In both of the simulation, with indirect fuel injection and dual-injection of fuel in both simulations conditions, such as occurring during research which results were presented in Figure 14 , were maintained.
In the case of simulation of engine with dual-injection of fuel the whole amount of fuel was divided between indirect injection systems and direct, so that the fraction of direct injection x DI was 0. At this fraction the engine gained the best value of the total efficiency.
List of crucial assumptions and sub-models used in the simulations were presented in Table 4 , respectively for indirect- and dual-injection of fuel. Figure 21 shows traces of pressure in the cylinder p c as a function of a cylinder volume in the case of indirect fuel injection and during work with the dual-injection system. One can see the difference in the value of the peak pressure and a slightly larger area under the curve of pressure in the cylinder of engine working with dual- injection system.
Figure 22 presents the change of the fuel mass as a function of crank angle for both of the considered injection systems. In the case of fuel injection only to the intake channel in the considered period of time in the cylinder exist only the fuel vapours.
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When the dual-injection system is used, the fuel injected directly into the cylinder evaporates completely before the moment of ignition. The angular momentum of the charge K tot is a indicator of the intensity of swirl and tumble turbulence in the cylinder, which affect the intensity of the evaporation of the fuel, its propagation within the cylinder volume, and consequently the speed of the flame spread.
Traces of the total angular momentum of the cylinder charge were shown in Figure The total angular momentum of charge Ktot in a function of a crank angle for both of the considered fuel systems. One can see the impact of fuel stream injected directly into the cylinder on charge. In the case of dual-injection of fuel the angular momentum in the intake and compression process achieves values greater than is the case of fuel injection only into intake channel.
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Intensification of the cylinder charge turbulence has undoubtedly an important influence on the improvement of the combustion process, and thus, to increase the torque of the engine. On the Figure 24 mass fraction of hydrocarbons HC, carbon monoxide CO and nitrogen oxide NO in the cylinder were shown as a function of crank angle for indirect injection and for the dual-injection of fuel.
On the basis of analysis of the graphs contained in Figure 24 it can be concluded that there are some differences in the formation of carbon monoxide CO, hydrocarbons HC and nitrogen monoxide NO depending on the concerned injection system. After end of the combustion in the cylinder of the engine working with indirect fuel injection there is slightly more CO and NO than in the case when the amount of fuel divided between the two injection systems.
When the fuel is injected by two injectors a fraction of unburned hydrocarbons is higher than with the indirect injection. The difference amounts to about 80 ppm, so it is not a significant disadvantage. Figure 25 shows the distribution of the mass fraction of fuel in the longitudinal section of the cylinder in the intake stroke for the each considered fuel system.
The stream of fuel injected directly into the engine cylinder is clearly visible in Figure 25 b.
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On the basis of the analysis of Figure 26 it can be concluded that the combustion develops in the initial stage significantly faster when the mixture is formed by two injectors per cylinder. It can be seen that at the end of the combustion process slightly higher temperature in the cylinder volume is observed in the case of dual-injection of fuel.
The carried-out simulations of the engine working with fuel injection only into the intake manifold and dual-injection of fuel gave the following conclusions:. Obtaining with the dual-injection of fuel the same mixture composition, which occurred with indirect injection, requires a slightly larger amount of fuel. This fact points to improve of volumetric efficiency for the engine working with dual-injection in those simulation conditions.
The same effect was obtained during the experimental tests,.