Personal style is primarily focusing on how the negotiator talks to others, how the person uses the titles, how they dress and how they interact with the other parties; Katz, , p.
Handbook of Global and Multicultural Negotiation
However, like other elements, culture has a fundamental role to play especially in creating of influence on how the person dresses, speaks and interacts. This therefore, will come a long way in the manner in which these people will negotiate and how it creates effects on the other parties. Within the international standards of negotiations, there are only two forms of personal style that are either considered to be formal or informal.
However, the present day of the business world has become to be too formal and has in a way not appreciated the informal personal style that instead is considered to be inferior. A negotiator who possesses formal style will always insist on addressing their counterparts using their titles and will at all cost avoid personal anecdotes and will desist from questions that can be considered to be private to touch on the family life.
This is different from a negotiator with an informal personal style who will start on the first name basis and will quickly seek to develop a personal, friendly relationship with the other team members. In some instances, this persona will take off their jackets and roll up their sleeves in the middle of deal making process. To such personalities, their culture allows this, and it is the best way of doing a business and developing trust. Making people around you feel free and even open up for personal discussion at some point. However, what must remain clear is that each culture has its formalities and the meaning that they create.
It is, therefore, not in vain that these personalities have to behave in such a manner.
Creating a comparison between the Americans and the Germans, American negotiators will tend to be informal as compared to the Germans who are official. Forcing the international negotiation process to be formal is a way of oppressing personalities whose culture supports the informal negotiation process. For the unofficial negotiators, they believe in an environment where people feel free as they get best opportunity of knowing one another.
It is for this reason that the current negotiation style that has been upgraded to be formal interferes with the culture of multiculturalism that incorporates diverse culture. Instead, it sidelines other cultures when it comes to the personal style. Whether the goal of the negotiator is to have a contract or relationship, all the negotiated transactions in nearly all the cases, the will reach an agreement; Maude, , p.
Handbook of Global and Multicultural Negotiation (eBook)
However, like other elements, culture has an upper hand in creating a remarkable influence. Either written or unwritten agreement, the culture will affect the decision made by the negotiators.
Comparing Americans to the Chinese, when it comes to making business deals, they will prefer detailed contracts that anticipate all the possible situations not minding how unlikely they are. This, however, is opposed by the Chinese, who do not prefer a detailed contract but form of general principles.
The difference in the two culture is the main contributor of the divergent opinions. For the Americans, believe that any deal is a contract, and an individual must refer to the contract when handling new situations that arise. The Chinese on the other hand believe that a deal is a relationship between parties. In the case of any unclear circumstance that arises, it is upon the parties to sit down and look for the best solutions to the problem. To them, having a detailed contract only shows a lack of confidence in the stability of the relationship.
The Chinese therefore, calls for the full trust of the parties who are engaging themselves into a contract and not showing a lack of confidence by having detailed contract that covers nearly all the uncertainties. The current international negotiation style that has been left to be informed of detailed contract, therefore, fails to depict the spirit of multiculturalism. Just like other elements that have been discussed, it fails to meet the demands of the cultures that believe in a relationship contract and gives the upper hand to those cultures that supports the contract relationship.
Not only the Chinese but also most of the Asian business negotiators believes in a relationship agreement as have been explained by Dawson In as much as the international negotiation, standards require for the parties to have one leader through which all the major decisions are made, culture plays a significant role in defining the type of organization that is present in the international negotiations.
Some cultures will emphasize on the individual while other culture will stress on the group leadership. In a way, these values may create an influence on the organization of each side in the negotiation process. Just like other elements, the Americans tend to have a negotiating team with one supreme leader who has been bestowed the authority to decide on all the matters.
Handbook on Global and Multicultural Negotiation
However, cultures such as the Japanese and the Chinese will require a team consensus decision making Fang, , p. In such situations, it is common to find Americans arriving at the negotiation table with three people and one being the leader but for the Chinese, they might come to the table with ten people and sometimes, it may be very difficult to know who the leader is.
However, as assumed by the negotiation standards that calls for a one team leader, is a way of not accepting other cultures such as the Chinese and the Japanese. As have been explained above, each cultural practice has some meaning more so to the people who practices it. The current negotiation method in which people have few representation and having things done in a faster way in the negotiation process as explained by Guillen ; Baeza , only undermines multiculturalism in the business negotiation context. Communication method during negotiation just like other factors also depicts how business negotiation is against multiculturalism.
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[BEST BOOKS] Handbook of Multicultural Negotiation by Christopher W…
Prime members enjoy FREE Delivery on millions of eligible domestic and international items, in addition to exclusive access to movies, TV shows, and more. In this insightful and practical book, Chris Moore and Peter Woodrow draw on their extensive global experience to help us understand the intricacies of seeking to reach intercultural agreements and show us how to get to a wise yes.
I recommend it highly! It is the way we arrange time, space, language, manners, and meaning. This book teaches us to understand our own culture so we are open to the other and gives us practical strategies to coordinate our cultural approaches to negotiations and reach sustainable agreements. Chris Moore and Peter Woodrow have used their global experience and invented the definitive tool for communication in the twenty-first century!
More important, the authors speak from decades of experience, providing the best book on the topic to date--a gift to scholars and practitioners alike. Christopher W. Moore is a partner of CDR Associates, an international collaborative decision-making, conflict management, and dispute-resolution systems design firm based in Boulder, Colorado.
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He has participated in many successful international negotiations and multiparty decision-making initiatives, and served as a mediator and conflict management consultant for over thirty years. He is the author of the book The Mediation Process from Jossey-Bass and numerous journal articles and monographs.
Peter J. He is an experienced multicultural mediator, facilitator, trainer, and consultant and is skilled in negotiation, collaborative problem solving, team building, dispute systems design, and conflict intervention. Woodrow is the coauthor of several books, numerous monographs, and articles.
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