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Carmelite Liturgy and Spiritual Identity | Medieval Church Studies
This is particularly noteworthy since these decades from the end of Nicholas V's papacy to the beginning of Sixtus IV's were the most peaceful of the entire century. Alarmed by the Turkish victory over Constantinople in , Venice and Milan ended their conflict with the Peace of Lodi in , after which they and Rome, Florence, and Naples agreed on the formation of the Italian League and on twenty-five years of peace.
Rather than political tranquility enhancing the opportunities for northern singers in Italy, just the reverse occurred. Interest in supporting a polyphonic choir disappeared in Ferrara with the death of Leonello d'Este in , not to emerge at all during the twenty-one year reign of Borso; and in Florence at the Baptistry of San Giovanni and the cathedral, whose musicians were sponsored by the Medici, there was no polyphonic chapel to speak of between and Milan, Naples, and Rome still patronized northern musicians, but the papal choir had very few new openings.
They hired nine new singers between and , but then only seven over the next decade. Peter's therefore looms as the major exception in these years, employing at the very least thirty-seven foreigners between and Clearly, the musical legacy of Nicholas V endured in a way that his far more expensive literary and architectural schemes could not. In his generosity to the papal choir and the creation of an independent choir of northerners at St.
Peter's, Nicholas embarked on a path that his successors by and large chose to follow, although under Calixtus III and Pius II the size of the choir temporarily diminished. At least for the papal chapel, Calixtus built on Nicholas's contributions with a few of his own. He formalized the administration of the papal chapel by reinstating the office of magister cappelle, and he increased the number of.
At first the personnel of the St.
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Peter's choir remained constant at about six. But in contrast to the expansion of the papal choir in the next years, the choir at the basilica then decreased to three or four singers.
by Antonio Vivaldi ; Clayton Westermann (editor)
By the end of Calixtus's short term in , the personnel had changed completely: Decano, the tenor Lupo, Nicholas Volfardo, and Johannes Monstroeul, known at St. Peter's as Johannes Castiglione or Piccardus. Through the ensuing years of periodic employment at St. Peter's and finally the Sistine Chapel , Fr. Archangelo maintained his ties with the nearby hospital Santo Spirito. Another Italian, Bononinus Bononius, was present by the end of the year, when this beneficiary of the basilica decided to study civil law.
This is certainly the longtime papal singer Monstroeul, admitted into the papal choir on 19 September, two weeks before the farewell notice at St. He is also likely the Johannes Piccardus who, from August , rented a house from the basilica near San Lorenzo de piscibus, sharing it with a countertenor in the papal choir Censualia 6, int.
In the chapter had to force him and the tenor Richardus Herbare to pay rent doc. Peter's, Piccardus was generally known as Johannes de Castiglione. While there are no other payments to Piccardus, de Castiglione was paid the same amount 2 ducats for the half year before Piccardus in September. Five months after Piccardus had stopped singing for the basilica, de Castiglione received one ducat retroactively for his salary the previous September.
The appellation de Castiglione may refer to a connection with Cardinal Johannes Castiglione, known as a patron of musicians. Peter's in , a Johannes Lupus from France evidently began a lengthy career at St. Mark's in Venice. Notarial records first mention "prete Giovanni de Franzia, cantore nella detta chiesa [di S.
Marco]" in Subsequent payments from and name "dominus Johannes Lupus cantor S. Marci," who was still there in as "Giovanni Luppi de Francia cantore della chiesa di s.
Regarding Volfardo, he was the "Nicolas teotonico cantore" who renounced his status as a cleric of the basilica on 1 June Therefore the northern form of his name must have been Wohlfahrt, Wolfaert, Wulfaert, or some related spelling. Peter's during most of the s and s. But in the first years of Plus II's papacy, the smaller choir of continued its decline. As had Calixtus, Plus directed his time and energy not to support the arts, but to oppose the approaching Turkish forces. Whatever his own inclinations as a humanist, because of his mission to defend the faith, Pius initially did not have the financial resources to build or to be a patron of the arts on a scale comparable to that of Nicholas V.
Elected on 19 August , Pius had already decided by early October to hold a general congress in northern Italy to galvanize a unified European response. He left Rome for Mantua on. Cecchetti includes these notices in "Appunti sugli strumenti musicali usati dai Veneziani antichi," Lupo is not the Austrian Johannes Lupi Wolf intimately associated with the Trent Codices and organist of the Trent Cathedral from until his death in Peter Wright has placed Johannes Lupi in Trent during this whole time, including a document dated October "On the Origins of Trent 87 1 and 92 2 ," Peter's the choir quickly disintegrated: Nicholas Volfardo left at the end of March, Lupo a month later.
Archangelo remained with the organist. During the pope's absence, it must have been hard to avoid parallels with the lean, unsettled years that Eugenius had spent away from Rome two decades earlier. Sometime during , perhaps only after Plus returned, the choir reformulated. By March , when records resume, there was once again a group of four singers and an organist. Among the three likely to be northerners was the tenor Guillelmus, probably the one who for years had traveled between Rome and Padua, where he was known at the cathedral as Guillaume da Francia. Not just a singer, he composed and copied music for the choir see chapters 4 and 7.
With him were Egidius, Guillelmino, and the St. Peter's beneficiary and regens chori , Loysio de Diano. This Egidius is likely Egidius Crispini Gilles Crepin , who asked for a new provision at the parish church of Wonne in Utrecht in March , while identifying himself as a cleric from the diocese of Cambrai.
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Every one but Loysio left at the end of October , a pivotal month for the St. Peter's choir. Either the singers quit, or someone—whether Plus II, the cardinal archpriest Pietro Barbo, or chapter officials—decided to overhaul the way music was performed at St. The former is the more likely possibility, given Guillelmus da Francia's negotiations in September to return to Padua, and the demise of the organ in November.
Once again Archangelo Blasio stepped in to fill the breach, singing for four months with Alfonso Hyspano.
Magnificat, RV 610 (Vivaldi, Antonio)
Probably during the summer of , Plus drew up a proposal for church reform that he never issued. In his section on the proper comportment of cardinals, he prohibited banquets, except when in honor of visiting princes or their ambassadors. In that case the only music allowed was "music of a serious character" Pastor, History of the Popes , Crispini may have appeared first at St. Peter's in ; that is when an Egidius sang for the Feast of Sts. Also called Egidio di Salomone, he was described as an ottimo maestro di musica.
As part of his duties in Rieti he repaired some antiphonaries Sacchetti-Sassetti, "La cappella musicale del duomo di Rieti," The arrival of Gregorio, the new tenor, in January was a significant step toward stability. Included in the choir of five during Gregorio's first year were Lamberto and two beneficiaries of the basilica, Loysio de Diano and Bonomo. Gregorio's two absences may have been for the purpose of recruiting. After Gregorio was away for two months in and eight months in , groups of new singers joined the choir within two months of his returning: in , Salmone and Guillaume Rose, and in , Carulo Britonio, Johannes Cornuel, and Ludovico Gregori, who was perhaps his pupil.
For most of his tenure at St. Peter's, Gregorio sang with the contra and priest Philippo April May A supplication dated 19 February reveals him to be Philippus de Holland, cleric from the diocese of Worms, a singer at St. Peter's as well as rector at the altar of. Thus Bartholomeus de Castr'ls at St. John Chrysostom.
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On this day he received his promotion to the order of priest; indeed, during March the chapter of St. Peter's granted him two ducats as alms for his first Masses "sung in our church. Peter's Philippo was the scribe of approximately eight quinterns of music for the choir in , music that presumably survives in the basilica's choirbook, SPB The choir finally regained or surpassed the size it had attained under Nicholas V in December , for reasons that surely have less to do with a new attitude toward northern polyphony than with a renewed ability to support the necessary forces.