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Though influenced by the religious myths of Mesopotamia, Asia Minor , and Egypt, Greek literature has no direct literary ancestry and appears self-originated. Roman writers looked to Greek precept for themes, treatment, and choice of verse and metre. All of the chief kinds of literature —epic, tragedy, comedy, lyric, satire , history, biography , and prose narrative—were established by the Greeks and Romans, and later developments have for the most part been secondary extensions.

The Greek epic of Homer was the model for the Latin of Virgil; the lyric fragments of Alcaeus and Sappho were echoed in the work of Catullus and Ovid; the history of Thucydides was succeeded by that of Livy and Tacitus; but the tragedy of the great Athenians of the 5th century bc had no worthy counterpart in Roman Seneca nor had the philosophical writings of Plato and Aristotle in those of any ancient Roman, for the practical Romans were not philosophers.

Whereas Greek writers excelled in abstraction, the Romans had an unusually concrete vision and, as their art of portraiture shows, were intensely interested in human individuality. In sum, the work of these writers and others and perhaps especially that of Greek authors expresses the imaginative and moral temper of Western man.


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It has helped to create his values and to hand on a tradition to distant generations. Among Roman authors an elevated Stoicism stressing the sense of duty is common to many, from Naevius, Ennius, and Cato to Virgil , Horace , and Seneca. Western literature. Info Print Print. We have been Brainwashed ever since the creation of mankind.

What mankind is doing for the last couple of hundred years is to treat everything like if we were switching off the light switch with a sledgehammer. Think about this for a while before you answer the question!

Foundations of Western Civilization Prof. Noble-Ancient & Medieval History

Aboriginals also go back 10s of thousands of years, and they are the oldest nown race anyway not sure about empire lol. Firstly refresh your minds timeline.. Where bible is years old… And please tell me the verse where it mentions the world is years old … Or in Quran which is more closer to the time line you mentioned. Further more yes there are cities much older than time frames mentioned in this article.

Please open a dictionary and read up the difference between city and civilization. Finally hypothesis is a word which does not agree with followers of mythologies Hinduism so to all of you obsessed with some ancient city near Gujarat … Get a life and understand the article. Lol really u think so. Its proven that indian culture, civilization and all other things are the oldest on this world. The creation of this earth through science and hindu matches. This proves everything.

The Ancient Middle East: Every Year

There is no other arguement. You are right, the Bible never mention anything about the World being 6, years old. But that did not stop the Church from persecuting And many more. You will not find anyone being presecuted by Hindus for saying similar thing. Matter a fact, quite the opposite happened.

Most of the persecution from the church were for political reasons, just so you know, not theological reasons. Galileo was best friends with the pope and a devote Christian, so why was he persecuted? He portrayed lower members of the clergy as uneducated idiots. People will often do things for secular reasons under the guise of religion.

It also made buttons, swimming pools, plumbing thats right it was not the romans , plastic surgery as a punishment , 3 major religions today buddhism, jainism, and sikhism are all descended from hinduism , and two of the oldest languages on earth, one of which is still spoken today tamil.

By the way, city and civilizations are closely tied. A city is an organized society of people working in a well-mannered fashion. Civilisation is just an extension of a city. I disagree with the notion that Civilization is just an extension of a city. There are great number of Civilizations which did not even had walled cities or complex bartering system or large armies.

Ancient history

Creating cities depends on the environmental factors. You cannot create large cities in the middle of desert if there is no water supply to support the populations — which is why the major cities in Ancient Worlds created around major rivers like Nile, Eurates, Ganges and Yangtze. Even the Badawins of the Desert lived nomadic life from one water hole to another, trading along the way. Therefore existence of walled cities should not be a mark to indicate civilization. I reject Bible Theories prior to that there were ancient civilizations existed on the earth as per the historical records.

Gobi, the bible is not the reason people believe the world is only 6, years old.

SOFT POWER

In fact in Genesis it talks about all the generations of man and the lifetimes of the men all add up to way more then than 6, years. He was obviously wrong. You though are correct India is one of the oldest if not the oldest civilization. Your legends go back over , years and are probably more fact based than legend. Oh really?


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Did your Bible mentioned how long Adam and Eve lived on Eden between the time the Earth was created to the point the couple was exiled? These are all NEW clans, try something older like Lithuania even their language is older than Sanskrit they are about 85, years old. First of all be the honest about History and read the Indian system, culture, and history.

Gifting Information

The vedas never mentioned a god. We were much better off before. Yes, 85, years ago when there were NO Homo Sapiens, that is when you say you had civilizations. Man put down that pot and focus. I understand that you are not ignorant as you are reading and replying so why not grasp full Knowledge. Actually , years ago, Homo Sapiens already existed. By 80, years ago they have spread to most regions in the Planet except for colder regions of Antartica and Artic and the desert region.

Toba in Sumatera had erupted causing a change in a global scale and number of population had dwindle to about a few thousands, mostly around Asia India, Africa and South-East Asia. It is these people who spread across the globe and created the human population that exists today. Where the earliest human bones are found which date backs to years BCE. It is not species found in dwarka but bones of human being. It is ancient country kangleipak in between eastern tract of India and western tract of Burma presently Myanmar.

Rama sethu is dated back 1,75, years ago and nasa claimed that it is a man made bridge and there is only one reference for this bridge which is in ramayana which happened before a long time. These western white people think they are superior but they don't know the indian civilization is the oldest civilization in the world. Actually what we know as Western Civilization had only began around s in Europe after a time period called the Dark Ages.

This allowed them to travel around Africa to Goa, India in s and then to Malacca by s and finally reach China and Japan by s — something that Indian and Chinese traders had been doing since 1st AD. So the bottomline is — Western Civilization is an immature but arrogant kid who kept on claiming that they did it first, when all they did was copy what someone else had done.

Puma punku , defys modern age testing techniques so atleast 20, yrs old this is located in the new world highlands of Bolivia an ignorant fools ancient india has some of the oldest civilizations in the world there are two cities under the ocean off the west coast of india they obviously wernt built under water soo the last time that area was dryland was before the last ice age when modern historians say we were just emerging out of our cave dwellings there blind fools there is numerous ancient cities on every continent that out date sumerian civilization also parts of the ancient ruins at nazca peru an parts if the incan empire are all close to 12, yrs old not the yrs you would read in any hjstory book todayhistorians an scientists today will spend more time on disproving an discrediting these discoveries they looking at the hard facts an admitting the mainstream scientific community is completely oblivious.

Harappa and mohanjadaro are Indian civilisation it related to early hindu civilisation. Pakistan was not existed that time and also their were no muslims in subcontinent. Islam came in subcontinent only yrs ago. Harappa is what they have full evident structures for, there were civilizations before that in India.

Pakistan came into existence 68 yrs ago u knew that and Islam yrs ago as I have read. First of all I would thank you a lot for such a good and very useful article. I was preparing some lessons for the general intellectual formation and needed something about civilisation and its ranking. It looked to me a foolish idea because one could never find so ready something that he is trying to find.

It was really a surprise. I thank you so much for such a contribution. C14 Carbon dating has proved conclusively that pre-Indus valley civilization with pottery, cities with drainage existed in Haryana at around BC. Unbelievable youguys left out the African civilizations e. Older then all mentioned. Today, not many could knows about the great Zulu Kingdom, the Bantu States, Bachwezi, Kongo or many other civilizations that exists with Egypt or after the fall of Egypt. Thing here is, by the time Harappa and Mohendajaro was build, human civilzations in Indus valley have reach significant amount of progress.

They were using metal tools, planned cities, water and land management as well as have proper government. Matter a fact, archaeologists had found some 1, cities in Indus valley, with Harappa and Mohendajaro to be the biggest. And recent discoveries shows that traders from Indus Valley were trading on sea routes, all the way to Mesopotamia as Indus valley official signets and jewerly were found in tombs of people buried in Middle East. These achievement cannot be made over night or within a few decades. Some of them could have taken hundreds of years to perfect. So, when did these Indus cities were created?

How old are their civilization?